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   Manual for classification
   Classification first 20 numbers
   Suffix z
   Notes to the classification system
   Creating a record card for an item

Procedures for classifying

In classification one must determine

1. subject (for example South African Libel Case, back related illness)
2. principal field or discipline which the Technique is applied to or informed by (for example anatomy, sport, education)
3. approach (for example introduction, teaching, review, research)

Initially one must rule out non-application classes. This can be done with questions such as: is the work by F. M. Alexander? (If yes, then B). Is its primary purpose to introduce the Technique without reference to a specific subject? (If yes, then C or O). Is it mentioning the Technique without introduction or introducing the Technique in less than about 100 words? (If yes, then O). Is it concerning the policies and administration of a society or other institution on the Technique? (If yes, then Q). Etcera.

Application classes
For the application classes D to N works are classed under the subject which is given the fullest treatment. The primary purpose of the material needs to be either a) or b):

a) does the Alexander Technique inform a certain discipline? Is it applied to a certain discipline?
E.g. the Technique may change our understanding of and approach to physical exercise (H.30)
b) is the Alexander Technique informed by a certain discipline? Does a discipline influence the Technique?
E.g. in works where a philosophy may contribute to the Technique (K.).

If it does pertain to a specific subject (discipline, field, job, area of interest) one must determine the subject.

A. Check the title and subtitle.
B. Check the table of contents which often list the main topics discussed. Check also book jacket and foreword or preface for a summary of subjects covered and approach. If in doubt continue with both C) and D).
C. Scan text to confirm preliminary subject analysis.
D. Check bibliographical references and index entries.

After determining the subject, the classifier must then select the proper class. As a rule class a work in the field for which it is intended rather than its origin. Works that are used together should be found together. User (“target audience”) takes precedence over provider (“author, institution”). E. g. Class D. is predominantly for teachers even if written by a non-teacher. Note that the classifier is not concerned with the truth or otherwise of the contents when classifying.

More than one subject
Where a work contains multiple aspects of one subjects or more than one subject use the following guidelines:

i. Class a work dealing with interrelated subjects with the subject that is being acted upon. This is called the rule of application.
First example: the whispered “ah”; if the whispered “ah” is explained for teachers for teaching purposes it should be classified in D.34.11, if it is explained for actors it should be classified in H.20 (Dramatic arts), if it is explained for asthma sufferers it should be classified in E. 62 (Respiratory diseases and disorders). However, the principle of “fullest treatment” still apply: anatomy may be used for illustrative purposes or as preliminary knowledge for the teaching of breathing, but the teaching of breathing remains the subject.
ii. Class a work on two subjects with the subject receiving the fuller treatment or, if equal, the subject which is preferred or recommended by the author(s) over the other.
iii. Class a work on two or more subjects that are all subdivisions of a broader subject in the first higher number than includes them all. -10 is for comprehensive works, i.e. work which include more than one of the subcategories.
For example, class a work on the whispered “ah” and table work in D.30.10.
iv. if two or more subjects receive equal treatment and are not used to introduce or explain one another, class one the work 1) with the subject which is more inclusive or 2) with the subject whose number comes first in the hierarchy.
Example of 1): Physiology is regarded as being more comprehensive than anatomy: any material which includes both anatomy and physiology is classed under physiology).

Example of 2): a work which treats equally upper arm misuse and keyboard work is classified under F.54 (disease and disorder of muscles) because E precedes L (L.80 Use of office applicances).

v. If in doubt, class in 00 for later consideration. Note also that there are many subjects where there are not yet enough material to create suitable sections and divisions.

Unfinished works
Most unfinished work, manuscripts, outlines, etc. can be classed in -19 in the appropriate class or, if covering more than one class, in History, P.30-39 under author.

Journals and newsletters
Journals, magazines are classified in .05 (Serials) within their subject, e.g. Society newsletters under the Society, general journals for teachers and pupils in D.

The reader rule
If there is no provision to show more than one of the aspects or characteristics (see Notes), a choice should be made on the basis of where the article will be found most useful for a reader seaching under a specific subject (because a choice must be made among general characteristics)

The place in the classification is determined by the intent of the author (as perceived by the reader) and the interest of the readers that the author is seeking to reach (not by the truth, falsity or validity of interpretations and premises). For example, if a writer claims his article to be on the Alexander Technique, then it is treated as such.

Published letters
Letters to the editor should as a guide be classed under the same subject as the article or review the letter is responding to (if the letter is a response). However, where the response is dealing with a different subject it should be classified under that subject. Where title is missing or editor’s title is unhelpful (e.g. “Angry readers respond!”), the archivist is allowed to use the title to which the letter refers to or, if the letter deals with a different subject than the original article, to add a subtitle in parenthesis which is descriptive in character (preferably by chosing a wording used by the author).

For more details

   The classification system
   Manual for classification
   For archivists

Notes on the first twenty standard sub-divisions

04 Use only for news items and announcements which cannot be classified in other categories. For example, announcements for conferences, workshops, etc. are classed in R.
06 Collection of information excl. formal research (>.070). Informal information gathering. interview methods. Also policy and methods of libraries, archives, museums.
07 Including statistical methods, descriptive, experimental, historial methods, journalism, support of and incentives for research. Class research in results in 08.
08 Include also informal research such as open-ended questionnaire surveys. (Formal research involves the articulation of a goal, a described procedure, which is guided by a hypothesis and defined assumptions, and the collection and interpretation of data in attempting to resolve the problem that initiated the research.)
09 Use only for historical development within the class. For history of the Technique in general, use P.20-29. For history of individuals, use P.30-39.
10 Use for material which cover more than one of the following categories, i.e. -20-99. In practice, -10 is assumed when not mentioned, i.e. “H.40” is read as “H.40.10”.

Use only for practical employment issues related to the subject, e.g. F.25.15 would practical issues working for a doctor in private practice (GP). Use R. for general employment issues.

16 A ‘summary’ is a description of contents without making any judgements or subjective comments on the item.

Concerning a specific event only. These are usually not written by the presenter. Only include reports written by the presenter(s) if they refer to a specific workshop, e.g. giving details of the circumstances or other individual characteristics. They are normally reflective and subjective. Generally exclude meetings which have to do with society policy (use Q.).

18. Specific individual case histories, either by the pupil or by the teacher involved. Usually recording the following factual events: the starting situation (a situation or problem), a description of the methods adopted, and the results. As a conclusion, the writer may suggest what this history illustrates, i.e. making some generalisations.
19. Use for material collected by an individual or an institution. Material is kept as a collection when is not necessary or appropriate to enter the material individually. For example, a scrapbook of newscuttings on the Technique can be treated as a collection. Donations consisting of a lot of material may be temporarily classified as a collection until the archivist has the time to examine the material and classify items individually.

Format styles
The titles in 16, 17, and 19 are uniformaly formatted in the archives (irrespective of the original title).

Format style for 16:
First “Review:” then title then “:” author (commas between authors and/or editors). For non-printed media, write media type in capital letters after the title (e.g. “Review: The Alexander Technique VIDEO: Jane Kosminsky”) Note: when a review contains reviews of several books which do not have the same classification, each item must be classified separately.
Format style for 17:
First kind (“Conference:”, “Lecture:”, “Summer School:”, “Workshop:”, “Work exchange:” – if none of these are appropriate, then simply “Report:”) then title “:” then name if appropriate (max. three names), otherwise leave blank. The name is of the person giving the lecture, workshop etc., not of the author of the report.
Format style for 19:
First “Collection:”, then descriptive title if appropriate, then name of the collector. (Example: “Collection: Photocopies of newspaper scrapbook: Irene Tasker”)

The suffix ‘z’ follows any the classification when the material does not mention or otherwise include the Technique, but still is of interest for the archives. (This is a temporary classification arrangement until it is discovered how much non-AT material the archives collect or have need for.) Anatomy is an example of non-Alexander material which is often included. “Z” may become a prefix, a class for non-Alexander material in the future.

A couple of exceptions are made for historical reasons, e.g. Charles Neil, who trained with Alexander, claimed he was not teaching the Technique (he had “developed and extended” it) but his writings and articles on him are still included in the archives as Alexander Technique material.

Notes supply information which is not obvious in the hierarchy or in the heading. Square parenthesis [ ] contain classifying notes, indicating advice for classification, for example “class here” or “class subjects dealing with xx under zz”. Parenthesis “( )” indicates examples, synonyms or near synonyms.

Enter classification code as set out in manual for achiving. If in doubt enter only class and section, leaving rest blank.

i. d. no.
This is a unique identity number. Every copy of any book, video, tape, etc. will be given a number which is written on the copy. Several copies of the same book will each be given a different number. The numbers start with 001. When selecting “New Record” the programme will automatically enter the next available no. – even if a record is deleted. Be sure to use deleted numbers by overriding the automatically entered no. E.g. if some material with the number 467 is irretrievable lost, use 467 for the next new item.

For articles in serials, books, etc. the journal or book has one identity number (e.g. 202) and the articles in the journal or book has a unique two-digit number after a full stop (e.g. 202.01, 202.02, etc.). Should more than 99 numbers be required, the system will need to be re-examined.

Include co-authors and editors. Editors are indicated by “-ed.” Separate each author by a semicolon. Enter the first listed name with surname first, followed by a comma, then first name, middle name (or initial). Enter only titles such as “Dr.” (when medical doctor), “Sir” or “Lord”. Enter “anonymous” when so stated or it appears the author wish to remain so (e.g. name and address withheld). Enter “unsigned” when no author is given (we do not know whether it is by accident or design). Separate married couples, e.g. where authors are given as “John and Mary Doe”, write “Doe, John; Doe, Mary”. Constitutions, official AGM documents (e.g. agenda, proposals, minutes), by-laws, etc. are considered ‘authored’ by the institution itself. For example, for STAT AGM minutes, write ‘STAT’ as author. With interviews enter both interviewer and interviewee as authors.

Notes on style: 1. always separate initials by full stop and break. It is common to use “FM” for “F. M.” but here the latter form is always used. 2. Use “and” instead of ampersand (“&”). 3. Accept “AT” as an abbreviation for “Alexander Technique”.

Pop-up menu gives choice of “open”, “restricted,” or “closed.” Open means the material is available to everybody who have access to archives. “Restricted” means the material is restricted to certain people, e.g. council members. “Closed” means the material is confidential for a certain time limit. For example, people who have donated private letters may stipulate that the material shall remain closed for a period of 20 years. When using “restricted” or “closed” specify under Comments the restrictions.

Use lower case except for first letter and names. Indicate subtitle by dash. Place definite articles (the, a, an) etc. at the end of the title, after a comma, e.g. “Alexander Technique, The”. Substitute “&” with “and”. Insert a space between an ellipsis of three points and a word, e.g. not “and more…” but “and more …” (and no space between the three points). Substitute numbers with the number spelled out (e.g. “seven” instead of “7”) up to and including ten - except dates. Private and published letters are always titled first with “Letter:” followed by either title used in publication or, in the case of private letters, name of recipient followed by “:” date of letter (if known). Obituary titles are uniform in appearance: “Obituray:” followed by name followed by the year of birth (if known) and the year of death. Any other title to follow as subtitle. Tributes and/or addition to obituaries are titled “Lives remembered:” followed by name etc. Review titles are uniform in appearance: “Review”, colon, followed by title followed by colon, authors and/or editors. Up to a maximum of three authors are mentioned; if there are more than three authors, list the authors and add “et al.” Editor, where known, is indicated by “-ed”. It is permissable for the archivist to add a parenthetical subtitle; this is especially useful in the case of columns where the title remains the same irrespective of the contents, e.g. “Viewpoint” in Direction magazine. The parenthesis indicates the text was added by the archivist.

Notes on style: Only use upper case except for personal or place names. Do not use upper case for titles of books, plays etc. If in doubt, use lower case. (The inconsistent use of upper case is confusing.) Do not use forward slash (/) - use a comma instead whenever possible. It is permissable to correct spelling or typo mistakes since these will otherwise hinder searches. It is the responsibility of a reader who wishes to quote references to check the original copy for spelling of title, author, etc. The archives’ objective is for readers to find and locate an item. British and American spelling diffferences are not altered; the reader needs to take these differences into account when making a search.

Many articles appear in journals or a book comprising a collection of works, etc. In order to re-direct the reader to where the article can be found, journal/book/newsletter/etc. title is listed here. List “The” at the end of the title. Specify place of publication when titles are common, e.g. “Times, The (London)”.

Vol - no - pages
Details for the above journal/book/newsletter/etc. Pages no. are inclusive, e.g. for an article which begins on page 73 and ends on page 79, write: 73-79. No. of pages in this example: 7. Where pages do not follow sequentially, insert a comma between pages, e. g. where an article starts on page 1 and continues on page 3 and then 4, write: 1, 3-4. When an article continues on a preceding or numerically earlier page number, then use comma as separator, e.g. “17, 16”, not “17-16”. Remember bibliography, notes, etc. are part of the article and must be included. Use the following abbreviations: -p = prelims, -i=insert. E.g. instead of writing “xxxvii-xxxviii”, write “37-38 -p”; instead of writing “3-7 inserted pages”, write “3-7 -i”. When stating the total number of pages in a newsletter it is not necessary to include any inserted pages.

Number of pages
The total number of pages of the archive copy. This may differ from the the pages in the original. It may only take one photocopy to cover two pages in book. E.g. an article in a book may cover pages 77-85, but the archive copy is a photocopy so the no. of pages may just be 5.

Date of journal, book, newsletter, etc. ISO 2014-1976E standard of date is used, e.g. 1984.01.12 = 12 January 1984. Use squared brackets for inferred date, e. g. [1984]. Use question mark for doubtful elements and let it follow the doubtful element, e.g. 1976? Dash (-) before a date indicates that it is dated before, e.g. -1976 means it could be any date up to and including 1975. Plus sign (+) after a date indicates it is the date or any time after the date, e.g. 1976+ means it could be 1976 or any year later. If only the decade is known use only three digits, e.g. 197+.

When periodicals only indicate month, e.g. “August” issue, state year and month (e.g. 08 for August). Where one more than one month is stated, e.g. “1991 Jan-March issue”, state the earliest month, e.g. “1991.01”. Where they only state season, e.g. “Autumn” issue, state this by using the first two letters after the year, e.g. spring = -sp, summer = su, fall = -fa (American usage), autumn = -au (British usage). Where two seasons are given use the first, e.g. “Sping-Summer issue”, use -sp.

When entering a paper or article published in a book, use the date of the paper itself. If the papers was first published in 1963, use 1963, instead of the publication date of the book (which is often later). For example, the Oxford congess papers were presented during the 2004 congress; although the book containing the paper was published in 2005 use 2004 for each paper recorded.

The format/kind the identity copy is stored in. Pop-up menu gives choice between article original, photocopy, paperback etc., hardback, booklet, unbound, flyer, Video VHS, Video DVD, Casette tape or Computer disk. Use “article original” for newspaper, newsletter, journal, etc. articles to indicate that we possess an original copy of the work. Use it also for manuscripts, drafts etc. if these are originals. Use “paperback etc.” for other kinds of binding, e.g. saddle stitching (e.g. wire stapled), spiralbinding. Note the difference between “booklet” and “flyer”: flyer is a single sheet of paper, perhaps folded. “Booklet” contains more pages, frequently stitched. As a guide, a booklet is less than 96 pages, a paperback 96 pages or more. Use “unbound” for manuscripts when they are just loose pages. It is assumed that a photocopy is unbound.

Pop-up menu gives choice between STAT, Gift, Bequest, Unknown, Purchase, Rescue, Deposit. Use “Bequest” and “Gift” when the material has been given free of charge. “Gift” indicates the donor gave the material while he or she was alive, “Bequest” indicates the material was left for the archives in the will of the donor. “Rescue” indicates that a person or persons have acquired the material on behalf of or for the purpose of donating to the Archives, usually saving it from being discarded. “Deposit” indicates that the material is on loan. Indicate owner under “Donor.”

Name of the actual person or organisation who have donated the material. In case of recently deceased teacher who did not in their testament bequest the material it may the estate, a widow, a daughter, etc. Name under “Previous owner” the teacher.

Date of acquistition
Use the standard of date described in “Date”.

Previous owner
Previous ownerNot all previous owners but only notable owners. For example, the donor of a teacher’s collection of papers may be the estate of the teacher but the teacher is named in Previous owner unless she bequested the papers to the Archives in her testament.

Language of present edition if different from English. English is the default option. A pop-up menu gives a choice of most languages in which Alexander Technique material has been published. Note that it is language used, not country of publication, which is here recorded. Where possible, distinguish between, for example, Portuguese and Brazilian Portuguese.

First published
Date of first (earliest) publication where indicated - if different from “Date”. Otherwise leave blank.

Original title
Where a title has been changed use the first known title. If translated use original title.

Introductions, preface etc. in books
Use only in books. Authors of introduction, foreword, preface or other preliminary chapters etc. Indicate by dash and initial letter what kind is/are listed, for example an introduction by John Dewey is written “John Dewey-i”. If a notably different heading is used write it out in full, for example “George Coghill-appreciation”. Although the terms introduction, foreword and preface are frequently used interchangeable note the following guidelines: “Preface” is a purely personal note by the author. “Foreword” is personal remarks by someone else. “Introduction” introduces the material, often describing what the material sets out to achieve and how, etc. and may be written by either author or someone else. However, use whatever term is used.

Indicate kind of illustrations used. Pop-up menu gives choice between photos colour, photos b/w, drawings, tables, musical notations. These are listed in order of inclusiveness, e.g. “photos b/w” indicate that the material may contain drawings but not colour photos. Use “drawings etc.” for other graphic material. Tables are not illustrations. Maps are classified as drawings. Do not include illustrations which are not directly related to the contents (e.g. stock photo). It is not necessary to include small photos of the author (typical of newspaper columns etc.).

Key words
Words which describe the key interest or focus for the work. As far as possible they should be taken from the work itself. Key words are often subjects or issues treated or discussed in the material (and therefore are the same words one might find in an index of the word.) Use key words sparingly. Use general terms instead of specific and proper names instead of colloquial where possible. Key words may also include synonyms or near synonyms, varient names or words with literary warrent provided they are contained in the work. Key words may also include the approach or treatment, the philosophy or methodology of the work. Key words would often include words from the title. Refer to list of preferred key words. Key words would also list people connected to the Technique of interest: teachers, royalty, nobility, politicians, famous people, etc. List only teachers if they are specially discussed. Place in parenthesis the names of people who is featured in a picture.

Summary of material, frequently including subject description, intention and conclusion of the material. Copy where included (e.g. in scientific journals). If creating an abstract follow these guidelines:

1 State the purpose, methods, results or findings, and conclusions and recommendations that are presented in the work.
2 Make the abstract as informative as the nature of the work permits so that readers may decide, quickly, whether they need to read the entire work.
3 Do not include information in the abstract which is not contained in the work being abstracted.
4 Use precise technical terms, and where there is a choice of two equally accurate terms, choose the one used by the work.
5 Avoid background information, like previous works, unless it is essential to the present work (e.g. annotated works).
6 Use standard English and follow conventional grammar and punctuation rules. Omit needless words, phrases and sentences.

Give expanded versions of lesser known abbreviations and acronyms.

General reading rule for making abstracts: read actively to identify information for abstraction and passively for understanding.

Any other necessary comments concerning the material, it is sometimes useful to state the origin or source for the material, e.g. lecture, thesis/dissertation, workshop. Personal observations by the archivist is allowed.

Location of the material. Where blank it is assumed it is in the STAT office.

Date entered
The computer will automatically enter the creation date of the record card. This can be overrided, however, if necessary.

Entered by
Initials of the person who entered the information.

LP = Laura Partanen
DQ = Declan Quickley
JMOF = Jean M. O. Fischer

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